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Students utilize the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation in analyzing buffers. After being assigned one of the three buffer systems, pH, and component acids, bases or conjugates, students construct a buffer and test it based on their own calculations. Students compare the pH changes of their buffer to those of distilled water and other solutions. Minimal prep time required. State of the Art instructor manual features background material, easy to follow stepwise protocols, assessment questions, sample data, modeled calculations, and an answer key. Additional equipment required: pH meter, glassware. Meets AP Science Practices 4 & 7.