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Students investigate all aspects of freezing point depression including: solvent freezing constant, van 't Hoff factor, and molar mass. Fulfill the AP required inquiry component while determining important applications of freezing point depression in everyday life. Direct students to design an experiment to resolve: What is the lowest temperature at which road treatment containing calcium chloride would be effective? Includes multiple solvents and solutes, both ionic and molecular. State of the Art instructor manual features background material, easy to follow stepwise protocols, assessment questions, sample data, modeled calculations, and an answer key. Meets AP Science Practices 2, 3 & 5.
Required, But Not Included: